Religion is a complex social phenomenon. While some scholars argue that understanding religion as a matter of subjective states is a Protestant bias, others argue that the focus should instead be on institutional structures. Whatever side of the structure/agency debate you fall on, it’s clear that mental states cannot be eliminated from a coherent account of religion.
It is a social phenomenon
Social phenomena are actions or behaviors that occur within a society. They often have concrete or unintended consequences, and they may be positive or negative. They often affect the entire population of a society or a community. Sociologists study these phenomena and use them to understand how people behave in certain circumstances. Some examples of social phenomena are religion, politics, economics, art, music, and customs.
It is a product of divine revelation
The question of whether religion is a product of divine revelation has two aspects. First, religion can be a product of propositional revelation, in which God causes people to have certain beliefs. This would constitute the primary mode of divine revelation. Second, religion must have cognitive contents, which are essentially propositions.
It has a prototype structure
Many attempts to understand religion have relied on a monothetic approach. This approach operates under the classical view, which states that every instance of a concept will have a common defining property. Polythetic approaches, on the other hand, abandon the classical view and instead treat religion as a prototype structure.
It is diverse
While many people think religion is monolithic, others disagree. There are many religions around the world. The difference between them is often based on their beliefs and practices. Some people associate religion with peace, tolerance, and equality. Others associate it with hatred and violence.
It is complex
Religion is a complex topic, which means that its definitions and practices vary significantly across cultures. In addition, religions are often diverse, especially in terms of theology. This diversity reflects the fact that religions differ from society to society, and even within the same nation.
It has institutional structures
Religions are a major force in shaping social and political structures. The basic features of a religion are a communal identity, social groups, rules, and authorities. In addition, religions provide distinct discourse and leadership training for their adherents.
It claims transcendent status
In philosophical and religious terms, transcendence refers to a concept that is independent of the material universe, beyond the reach of human knowledge. It is a logical contrast to immanence, in which god is fully present in the physical universe. Transcendence is a state of being that transcends the limitations of physical existence and can be manifested in rituals, meditation, and psychedelics.